Examples of Liability Limitations in North Carolina

In addition to the limitation enacted for liability for medical malpractice actions in North Carolina under G.S. 90-21.19(a), the following are some examples of liability limitations that the General Assembly has enacted in the past.  This is far from a comprehensive listing and only represents such examples as could be located in a limited period of time.

  1. Agritourism
    1. G.S. 99E-31 limits the liability of agritourism professionals for injuries or death to participants.



  1. Equine Activity and Farm Animal Activity
    1. G.S. 99E-2 and §99E-7 limits the liability of the equine and farm animal professionals for injuries or death resulting from the inherent risks of equine or farm animal activity.

http://www.ncleg.net/EnactedLegislation/Statutes/HTML/BySection/Chapter_99E/GS_99E-2.htmlSee also G.S. 99E-7



  1. Certain Food Companies
    1. N.C. Gen. Stat. 99E-42 protects the fast food industry from lawsuits from consumers related to obesity, weight gain, or health conditions.
    2. http://www.ncleg.net/EnactedLegislation/Statutes/HTML/BySection/Chapter_99E/GS_99E-42.html
  2. Landowner Making Watershed Improvements
    1. G.S. 139-41.3 limits the liability of landowners who make watershed improvements.
    2. http://www.ncleg.net/EnactedLegislation/Statutes/HTML/BySection/Chapter_139/GS_139-41.3.html


  1. Good Samaritans, with one example being:
    1. G.S. 83A-13.1 limits the liability of architects who volunteer in emergencies or disasters
    2. http://www.ncleg.net/EnactedLegislation/Statutes/HTML/BySection/Chapter_83A/GS_83A-13.1.html


  1. Dram Shop Protections
    1. G.S. 18B-123 limits damages recoverable by aggrieved persons for service of alcohol to underage persons:
    2. http://www.ncleg.net/EnactedLegislation/Statutes/HTML/BySection/Chapter_18B/GS_18B-123.html


  1. Persons assisting with responding to oil spills
    1. Limits the liability of the responders: 
    2. http://www.ncleg.net/EnactedLegislation/Statutes/HTML/BySection/Chapter_143/GS_143-215.93A.html
  2. Protection of Ski Operators
    1. G.S. 99C-4 prohibits liability of a ski area operator for injury or death of any competitor proximately caused by the defined risk:
    2. http://www.ncleg.net/EnactedLegislation/Statutes/HTML/BySection/Chapter_130A/GS_130A-423.html


  1. Liability Protection for those who administer Childhood Vaccines
    1. G.S. 130A-423 establishes the  North Carolina Childhood Vaccine-Related Injury Compensation Program limits damages as provided pursuant to federal law under subtitle 2 of Title XXI of the Public Health Service Act:
    2. http://www.ncleg.net/EnactedLegislation/Statutes/HTML/BySection/Chapter_99C/GS_99C-4.html


  1. Recreation Parks
    1. G.S. 99E-24 limits the liability of skate parks and/or public entities that sponsor hazardous recreational activities.



  1. Products Liability limitations for certain manufacturers and retailers;
    1. No strict liability: http://www.ncleg.net/EnactedLegislation/Statutes/HTML/BySection/Chapter_99B/GS_99B-1.1.html
    2. Protects retailer if in package: http://www.ncleg.net/EnactedLegislation/Statutes/HTML/BySection/Chapter_99B/GS_99B-2.html
    3. Protects manufacturers under 99B-4:
    4. http://www.ncleg.net/EnactedLegislation/Statutes/HTML/BySection/Chapter_99B/GS_99B-4.html
    5. Immunity for donated food under 99B-10: http://www.ncleg.net/EnactedLegislation/Statutes/HTML/BySection/Chapter_99B/GS_99B-10.html
    6. Protection through burden of proof for agricultural commodity producers under GS 99B-12: http://www.ncleg.net/EnactedLegislation/Statutes/HTML/BySection/Chapter_99B/GS_99B-12.html
  2. Roller Skating Rink Operators
    1. N.C. Gen. Stat. 99E-14 limits the liability of roller skating rink operator.



  1. Hotel Industry
    1. G.S. 72-2 limits the liability of the hotel industry for damages or losses to baggage. http://www.ncleg.net/EnactedLegislation/Statutes/PDF/ByChapter/Chapter_72.pdf
  2. Certain Contractors
    1. G.S. 143-134.3 prohibits enforcement of contractual terms for delay in construction contracts:See also G.S. 143-134.2
    2. http://www.ncleg.net/EnactedLegislation/Statutes/HTML/BySection/Chapter_143/GS_143-134.3.html
    3. http://www.ncleg.net/EnactedLegislation/Statutes/HTML/BySection/Chapter_143/GS_143-134.2.html


  1. Public Safety Telecommunications and Dispatchers:
    1. G.S. 99E-65 heightens the standard of proof for actions against Telecommunicators and Dispatchers.
    2. http://www.ncleg.net/EnactedLegislation/Statutes/HTML/BySection/Chapter_99E/GS_99E-65.html
  2. Firearms Industry
    1. G.S. 14-409.40 preempts the regulation of firearms by local governments.
      1. The General Assembly further declares that the lawful design, marketing, manufacture, distribution, sale, or transfer of firearms or ammunition to the public is not an unreasonably dangerous activity and does not constitute a nuisance per se and furthermore, that it is the unlawful use of firearms and ammunition, rather than their lawful design, marketing, manufacture, distribution, sale, or transfer that is the proximate cause of injuries arising from their unlawful use. This subsection applies only to causes of action brought under subsection (g) of this section.



  1. IT Industry
    1. G.S. 143B-1350(h)(1) limits the liability of Information Technology companies for loss of data.
      1. (h1) All contracts subject to the provisions of this Part shall include a limitation on the contractor’s liability to the State for damages. Except as otherwise provided in this subsection, the limitation of liability shall be for damages arising from any cause whatsoever, regardless of the form of action. The amount of liability shall be determined based on the nature of the goods or services covered by the contract; however, there shall be a presumptive limitation of no more than two times the value of the contract. Limitation of liability pursuant to this subsection shall specifically include, but not be limited to, the contractor’s liability for damages and any other losses relating to the loss of, unauthorized access to, or unauthorized disclosure of data.



  1. Attorney General’s Office
    1. No liability related to campus police.
    2. http://www.ncleg.net/EnactedLegislation/Statutes/HTML/BySection/Chapter_74G/GS_74G-11.html